What You Need To Know
Córdoba is a city in the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about 700 km (435 mi) northwest of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. It is the capital of Córdoba Province and the second most populous city in Argentina after Buenos Aires, with about 1,330,023 inhabitants according to the 2010 census. It was founded on 6 July 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera, who named it after Córdoba, Spain. It was one of the first Spanish colonial capitals of the region that is now Argentina (the oldest city is Santiago del Estero, founded in 1553). The National University of Córdoba is the oldest university of the country and the second to be inaugurated in Latin America. It was founded in 1613 by the Jesuit Order. Because of this, Córdoba earned the nickname La Docta (roughly translated, “the learned one”). Córdoba has many historical monuments preserved from Spanish colonial rule, especially buildings of the Roman Catholic Church. The most recognizable is perhaps the Jesuit Block (Spanish: Manzana Jesuítica), declared in 2000 as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO which consists of a group of buildings dating from the 17th century, including the Colegio Nacional de Monserrat and the colonial university campus. The campus belongs today to the historical museum of the National University of Córdoba, which has been the second-largest university in the country since the early 20th century (after the University of Buenos Aires), in terms of the number of students, faculty, and academic programs. Córdoba is also known for its historical movements, such as Cordobazo and La Reforma del ’18 (known as University Revolution in English).
Area: 576 km²
Population: Estimate 1,587,358
The peso (established as the peso convertible) is the currency of Argentina, identified by the symbol $ preceding the amount in the same way as many countries using dollar currencies. It is subdivided into 100 centavos. Its ISO 4217 code is ARS. Several earlier currencies of Argentina were also called “peso”; as inflation progressed a new currency with a few zeroes dropped and a different qualifier (peso national currency, peso law 18188, peso argentino…) was introduced. Since 1970, thirteen zeroes have been dropped (a factor of ten trillion).
The Literary activity flourished in the city at the beginning of the last century. Córdoba was the city of Leopoldo Lugones, Arturo Capdevila and Marcos Aguinis, among many other prestigious writers. Among the city’s best-known museums are the Caraffa Fine Arts Museum, founded in 1916, and the Evita Fine Arts Museum, founded in 2007. The Paseo del Buen Pastor, a cultural center opened in 2007, features an art museum, as well as a shopping gallery devoted to local vintners, cheese makers, leather crafters and other artisans.
The typical music in Córdoba is the cuarteto, heard in many parties and pubs. Among the most popular cuarteto singers are Carlos La Mona Jiménez, Rodrigo, La Barra and Jean Carlos. The places they usually sing are named bailes (dances). One of the first groups was Cuarteto de Oro. Other music styles popular with the youth are electronic music (or electro), as well as reggaeton. These are commonly played at boliches, as night clubs are known in Argentina. Córdoba is sometimes referred to as “the nightlife city” (or “the city that never sleeps”), because of its wide range of clubs and teenage matinées (dancing clubs). Córdoba’s rich musical culture also encompasses classical, jazz, rock and pop, in a variety of venues. Teatro Libertador San Martín regularly features concerts, operas, folk music, and plays.
The largest ethnic groups in Córdoba are Italians/Italian Argentine and Spaniards/Spanish Argentine (mostly Galicians and Basques/Basque Argentine). Waves of immigrants from other European countries arrived in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. From the rest of Western Europe came immigrants from Switzerland, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland and Scandinavia (especially Sweden). Eastern Europeans also arrived from nations such as Croatia, Poland, Hungary, Russia, Romania, Ukraine, Armenia and the Balkans (especially Greece, Serbia and Montenegro). By the 1910s, 43 percent of the city population was non-native Argentine after immigration rates peaked. Most immigrants, regardless of origin, settled in the city or around Greater Córdoba. However, in the first stages of immigration, some formed colonies (especially agricultural colonies) in different parts of the city, often encouraged by the Argentine government and/or sponsored by private individuals and organizations.
Since World War II, Córdoba has been developing a versatile industrial base. The biggest sectors is car and car parts manufacturing: (Renault has a factory which produces a range of cars, Volkswagen has a factory specialized in the production of gearboxes, and Fiat) has another car factory in the city. Many suppliers (both local and foreign) manufacture car parts for these operations. Additionally, starting in 2017-2018, Nissan and Mercedes-Benz will begin the production of their new pickup truck at the Renault factory. Railway construction (Materfer) and aircraft construction (Fábrica Militar de Aviones) were once significant employers, but their activities have greatly diminished. Furthermore, there are some textile, heavy and chemical industries (e.g. Porta for alcohol). Areas around Córdoba produce vast amounts of agricultural products, and some of these are processed around the city. Additionally, the province is one of the main producers of agricultural machinery in the country, although most of these operations are not in the city itself. Candy company Arcor is headquartered in the city. Córdoba has been considered the technological centre of Argentina. The Argentinian spaceport (Centro Espacial Teófilo Tabanera), where satellites are being developed and operated for CONAE, is located in the suburb of Falda del Carmen. The software and electronic industries are advancing and becoming significant exporters; among the leading local employers in the sector are Motorola, Vates, Intel, Electronic Data Systems, and Santex América. The city also has a service-based economy focused on retail, professional services (with companies like Deloitte) and financial services, where the main local player is credit card provider Tarjeta Naranja. It has recently emerged as a start-up hub with a growing number of angel investors, in part due to the availability of people with technology-oriented skills.
The first festival of the year is in February, the Carnival, where children enjoy throwing water balloons at each other on the street. Then in the middle of the year, on 20 July, Friends Day is celebrated. Usually, most of the teenagers meet at Parque de las Naciones or Parque Sarmiento and spend the afternoon there. At night, they go dancing to different places, and enjoy a drink. The last festival is Spring Day, held on 21 September, which is Students’ Day. Many go to the park or spend the day in the nearby city of Villa Carlos Paz. There they can enjoy lots of activities like concerts, dancing, going downtown or visiting the river bank.
In Argentina the health care system is organized around three main providers: The public sector – which supplies free clinical care for hospital inpatients and outpatients. … The private sector – where patients meet the total cost of their medical care; this sector covers around 5% of the population.
Although Argentina’s official language is Spanish, Argentinian Spanish is different from the Spanishspoken in Spain. In some ways it sounds more likeItalian than Spanish. There are also many other languages spoken in Argentina, including Italian, German, English and French.
The Córdoba public transport system includes trains, buses, trolleybuses and taxis. Long-distance buses reach most cities and towns throughout the country. The city is served by the nation’s third largest airport Ingeniero Ambrosio L.V. Taravella International Airport.
The climate of the city of Córdoba, and that of most of the province, is humid subtropical (Cwa, according to the Köppen climate classification), moderated by the Pampas winds, cold winds that blow from the South-western quadrant, originates in the Antarctica. There are four marked seasons. Summers run from late November till early March, and bring days between 28 °C (82 °F) and 33 °C (91 °F) and night between 15 °C (59 °F) and 19 °C (66 °F) with frequent thunderstorms. Heat waves are common, and bring days with temperatures over 38 °C (100 °F) and hot, sticky nights; however, Pampero winds are sure to bring relief with thunderstorms and a day or two of cool, crisp weather: nighttime temperatures can easily descend to 12 °C (54 °F) or less, but the heat starts building up right away the next day. By late February or early March, nights start getting cooler and, in March, highs average 27 °C (81 °F) and lows 15 °C (59 °F); after cold fronts, lows below 10 °C (50 °F) and highs below 20 °C (68 °F) are recorded in this month. April is significantly drier already; highs reach 24 °C (75 °F) on average and lows 12 °C (54 °F), creating very pleasant conditions. In some years, temperatures can approach or even reach the freezing point in late April; however, heat waves of up to 33 °C (91 °F) are still possible, but nights are rarely as hot as in the summer. May usually brings the first frosts, and very dry weather, with under 20 mm (1 in) of rain expected. Highs average 21 °C (70 °F) and lows average 8 °C (46 °F); however, when cold waves reach the area, highs may stay below 8 °C (46 °F) and lows can be well below freezing.
Winter lasts from late May till early September, and bring average highs of 18 °C (64 °F) and lows of 4 °C (39 °F). However, strong northwesterly winds downsloping from the mountains can bring what is known as “Veranito” (little summer) with highs of up to 30 °C (86 °F) or more and dusty, windy weather (but dry, pleasant nights) for 2–3 days. Conversely, when storms stall over the Atlantic coast, there may be several days of drizzle and cool weather, and when cold air masses invade the country from Antarctica (several times every winter), there may be one or two days with temperatures around 6 °C (43 °F), drizzle and high winds (which combined make it feel very cold), followed by dry, cold weather with nighttime lows between 0 °C (32 °F) and −5 °C (23 °F) and daytime highs between 8 °C (46 °F) and 15 °C (59 °F). Snowfall is very rare in the city, but more frequent in the outskirts where the Sierras begin; sleet may fall every once in a while. The record low temperature for Córdoba is −8.2 °C (17.2 °F). In June, only 3.5 mm (0.1 in) of rain are expected, compared to 168 mm (6.6 in) in January.
Spring is extremely variable and windy: there may be long stretches of cool, dry weather and cold nights followed by intense heat waves up to 38 °C (100 °F), followed by the most severe thunderstorms with hail and high winds. It is not unusual to see temperatures drop 20 °C (36 °F) from one day to another, or to have frost following extreme heat. Drought is most common in this season, when the normal summer rainfall arrives later than expected. By October, days are warm at 26 °C (79 °F) but nights remain cold at 11 °C (52 °F), by late November, the weather resembles summer weather with cooler nights.